Hypertension in Children

Hypertension in Children   Recently I did an echo on a mixed race 17 year-old female with hypertension. Pretty young for this disease, so how can this be? To begin, what are the normal for children? Typically, you may find the following values: 1-5 years of age: 90/60 6-12 years of age: 100/60 13-17 years … Continued

Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure in Neonates

How to Measure Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure (RVSP) for Echocardiographers As a pediatric echosonographer, pulmonary hypertension is one of the most common problems that you will encounter, especially in babies born prematurely. Systemic hypertension occurs when blood pressure is abnormally high in the aorta and its branches (left sided circulation). This pressure is obtained with … Continued

What is the Difference Between the Konno, Ross and Rastelli Procedures in the Repair of Congenital Heart Defects?

What is the Difference Between the Konno, Ross and Rastelli Procedures in the Repair of Congenital Heart Defects?   To begin, there is really no “one size fits all” surgical procedure, just as there is no “one size fits all” congenital heart defect. These procedures and defects are highly individualistic and depend on the range and severity … Continued

Registry exams for Sonographers

Passing the Registry Exams, for Songraphers How to pass a multiple choice test Writing a multiple choice test is no easy task, believe me I’ve done it. A good test will present questions that are relevant to the subject matter that you are trying to learn, and present answers that nudge you in the direction … Continued

Kawasaki Syndrome

Kawasaki disease is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. and this question will be likely on your Peds exam. it is a form of vasculitis that affects not only the coronary arteries, but other arteries as well, such as the brachial and carotid arteries. It is called “Kawasaki Disease” because it is named … Continued

Mitral Valve Prrolapse

What the Heck is Mitral Valve Prolapse all about anyway? Any experienced Echocardiographer who has been around since the Eighties (old aren’t we?), knows that just about every female with a murmur back in those olden days was almost automatically diagnosed with MVP. Therefore, you probably spend some amount of time with adult female patients … Continued

Konno, Ross and Rastelli Procedures

What is the Difference Between the Konno, Ross and Rastelli Surgical Procedures       To begin, there is really no “one size fits all” surgical procedure, just as there is no “one size fits all” congenital heart defect. These procedures and defects are highly individualistic and depend on the range and severity of the … Continued

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) and Other Chromosomal Disorders Down Syndrome is a chromosomal defect in which there is an extra chromosome inserted into the DNA other than the normal 46 chromosomes. Of children born with a cardiac defect, about one in twenty have trisomy 21. This is highly associated with congenital heart disease, particularly  atrioventricular … Continued

Pre Eclampsia and Pregnancy

Pre eclampsia, otherwise known as high blood pressure during pregnancy, Preeclampsia: a potentially dangerous rise and high blood pressure among pregnant females that generally occurs later in the pregnancy (after 20 weeks, who typically have no history of high blood pressure). Symptoms include headaches and seizures, protein in the urine and a lower extremity edema. … Continued

Stress Testing and Exercise Performance For Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

Stress Testing or Exercise Performance for patients with Congenital Heart Disease Children with known heart defects, or patients with suspected heart defects typically are  the primary recipients of stress tests. There are numerous reasons why this may be done, including the evaluation of heart rhythms, ischemia (whether the heart muscle is receiving enough oxygen), or … Continued