Heterotaxy and Isomerism

  Heterotaxy, aka situs ambiguous, isomerism or atrial isomerism is a complex, systemic congenital defect that impacts multiple organ systems, particularly the heart. This is an important defect that every echocardiographer should be aware of.   Heterotaxy is more accurately described as situs ambiguous. “Situs” refers to the positioning of the organs in the body. … Continued

Aortic Stenosis in Children

Aortic Stenosis in Children   Aortic stenosis in adults is quite different than the type aortic stenosis found in neonates. Aortic stenosis in adults begins as an inflammatory process that occurs in the endothelial tissue of the valve that attracts fatty deposits to be laid down upon the valve and is encapsulated by cholesterol deposits, … Continued

Atherosclerosis in Children

Atherosclerosis in Children     Atherosclerosis is actually quite common in children and young adults, with a morbidity (prevalence) approaching 20% of the population having early lesions of atheroma (found as a result of autopsies of those who have died as a result of non-cardiac cause and verified by modalities such as intravascular ultrasound and … Continued

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot     The “Skeleton” of the heart is the cartilaginous, fibro-muscular part of the heart that gives it structure and integrity. It is composed of the aorto-pulmonary or semilunar apparatus that gives rise to the aortic and pulmonary valves, the endocardial cushions that give rise to the mitral and tricuspid valves, and … Continued

Hypokalemia, Hyperkalemia and Echocardiography

    (This is really an adult echocardiographer post but it is a subject that I am interested in)   Every echo tech has picked up a requisition with this diagnosis, but what is it and what does it mean when one does an echo?   Hyper, hypo meaning too much or too little respectively, … Continued

Pre eclampsia, Maternal Diabetes, the Neonate and Echocardiography

    Primary, or essential hypertension accounts for the vast majority of hypertension in adults and is associated with aging, diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and is strongly linked to genetic factors. Of increasing interest is the link to hypertension later in life and dietary factors early in life and during fetal development.   Hypertension in … Continued

Hypertension in Children

Hypertension in Children   Recently I did an echo on a mixed race 17 year-old female with hypertension. Pretty young for this disease, so how can this be? To begin, what are the normal for children? Typically, you may find the following values: 1-5 years of age: 90/60 6-12 years of age: 100/60 13-17 years … Continued

Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure in Neonates

How to Measure Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure (RVSP) for Echocardiographers As a pediatric echosonographer, pulmonary hypertension is one of the most common problems that you will encounter, especially in babies born prematurely. Systemic hypertension occurs when blood pressure is abnormally high in the aorta and its branches (left sided circulation). This pressure is obtained with … Continued

What is the Difference Between the Konno, Ross and Rastelli Procedures in the Repair of Congenital Heart Defects?

What is the Difference Between the Konno, Ross and Rastelli Procedures in the Repair of Congenital Heart Defects?   To begin, there is really no “one size fits all” surgical procedure, just as there is no “one size fits all” congenital heart defect. These procedures and defects are highly individualistic and depend on the range and severity … Continued

Registry exams for Sonographers

Passing the Registry Exams, for Songraphers How to pass a multiple choice test Writing a multiple choice test is no easy task, believe me I’ve done it. A good test will present questions that are relevant to the subject matter that you are trying to learn, and present answers that nudge you in the direction … Continued